Book: Intrinsic Motivation at Work

intransic_motivation_at_work“Intrinsic Motivation at Work: What Really Drives Employee Engagement” by Kenneth W. Thomas

  • Jack  Welch,  former CEO of General Electric, put it this way: “I think any company . .  .  has got to find a way to engage the mind of every single employee.  .  .  .  If you’re not thinking all the time about making every person more  valuable,  you don’t have a chance. What’s the alternative? Wasted minds? Uninvolved people? A labor force that’s angry or bored? That doesn’t make sense.”
  • “Extrinsic rewards don’t come from the work itself;  they are doled out by supervisors to ensure that work is done properly and that the rules are followed. They include compensation such as salaries, bonuses, commissions, perks, benefits, and cash awards.”
  • “the new work requires a great deal of self management by workers. Self-management, in turn, requires more initiative and commitment,  which depend on deeper passions and satisfactions than extrinsic rewards can offer.  Fortunately,  the new work has the potential for much richer,  intrinsic  rewards.  Intrinsic rewards come to workers directly from the work they do—satisfactions like pride of workmanship or the sense that they are really helping a customer.”
  • “Tasks, then,  are sets of activities directed toward a purpose. “
  • “Rediscovering the role of purpose in work is key to understanding the new work and the motivation of today’s workers. Without a clear notion of purpose,  workers cannot make intelligent choices about work activities,  and they are also deprived of a sense of the meaningfulness of their work.”
  • “work purposes generally involve events that are external to workers’ jobs. That is,  most work purposes involve outcomes that occur not to the worker,  but to some customers (internal or external) in the worker’s environment.”
  • “Importantly,  meeting those needs—and having a positive impact on one’s environment—is what gives the job its significance or meaningfulness.”
  • “achieving work purposes is not totally under a worker’s control and involves inevitable uncertainties.  Be cause they are external to workers’  jobs,  task purposes depend not only upon workers’  activities,  but on outside events as well.”
  • “The fact of these uncertainties provides much of the challenge and suspense involved in accomplishing work purposes— and produces much of the satisfaction in their accomplishment.”
  • “Organizations need workers to take active responsibility for handling more and more of the uncertainties involved in the accomplishment of their purposes.  So organizations have been forced to flatten their hierarchies and push decision making down to workers. Workers are called on to adapt to customers’  needs,  simplify and improve organizational processes, coordinate with other workers and teams,  and initiate ideas for new products and services.”
  • ” In this new environment,  then,  it is widely recognized that employee empowerment requires a pushing down of choice and authority to workers to allow them to make intelligent decisions.”
  • “Workers simply cannot make intelligent choices without having clear task purposes. Workers must also be committed to those purposes.”
  • ”  “[Organizations] need profits in the same way as any living being needs oxygen.  It is a necessity to stay alive,  but it is not the purpose of life.”
  • “In today’s work,  on the other hand,  shared purposes and the need for worker judgment allow workers to be treated more like adults and relationships between you and your team members to be more collaborative and egalitarian. When a common purpose becomes paramount,  then,  you will want to seek out helpful information from team members, and they will want to help you avoid mistakes”
  • “Self-management begins when you commit to a meaningful purpose. You then choose activities to accomplish the purpose. As you perform those activities, you monitor the competence of that performance to make sure that it is adequate. Finally,  you monitor progress toward accomplishing the task purpose to make sure that the activities are having the intended effect and are actually moving the purpose forward.”
  • “In activity-centered decision making,  we decide to perform behaviors with the hope that they will accomplish a purpose. The purpose is in the background as a desire,  intention,  or aim. We perform the activities and see what happens.  If those activities don’t achieve the purpose,  we are disappointed,  but that is sometimes the nature of life, and we move on to another task.”
  • “In purpose-centered decision making,  by contrast,  we commit to a purpose,  and the activities are in the background. That is,  we’re not entirely sure how we will accomplish the purpose. The decision is basically to fi nd the activities needed to deal with the uncertainties involved.  Subject to our moral code and our other commitments,  we are deciding to do whatever is needed to accomplish the purpose.”
  • “There are two parts to evaluating how the task is going—how well you are performing the activities (competence of performance) and how well the activities are accomplishing the task purpose (progress toward the purpose).  Both are important.  If you have chosen the right activities,  the competence of your performance is likely to advance the purpose.  In an uncertain world,  however,  you can’t be sure that those activities are the right ones.  So you have to keep checking to make sure that the purpose is being achieved.”
  • Worker engagement: “workers are engaged in the new work to the extent that they are actively self-managing at that work”
  • “Rather than simply going through the motions or doing  ‘good enough’  work,  then,  workers are engaged in their work when they are committed to a purpose,  using their intelligence to make choices about how to best accomplish the task, monitoring their behavior to make sure they are doing the task well,  checking to make sure their actions are actually accomplishing the purpose,  and taking corrective action when needed.”
  • “By allowing workers to make more decisions on task uncertainties they encounter, you are better able to leverage your time to deal with larger uncertainties facing the team. “
  • logical requirements of self-management: “Each of the events in the self-management process requires the worker to make a judgment—of the meaningfulness of the task purpose, the degree of choice available in selecting activities, how competently he or she is performing those activities, and the amount of progress being made toward the task purpose.”
  • “A sense of meaningfulness is the opportunity you feel to pursue a worthy purpose. The feeling of meaningfulness is the feeling that you are on a path that is worth your time and energy—that you are on a valuable mission and that your purpose matters in the larger scheme of things.”
  • “A sense of choice is the opportunity you feel to select activities that make sense to you and to perform them in ways that seem appropriate. The feeling of choice is the feeling of being able to use your own judgment and act out of your own understanding.”
  • “A sense of competence is the accomplishment you feel in skillfully performing the activities you have chosen. The feeling of competence involves the sense that you are doing good,high-quality work.”
  • “A sense of progress is the accomplishment you feel in achieving the purpose. The feeling of progress involves the sense that your work is moving forward, that your activities are really accomplishing something.”
  • “Younger workers are deeply involved in learning the ropes about their work (and about life in general). So at that stage of life, their passions at work often involve showing that they can handle things.”
  • “But as workers begin to complete this stage and to realize that they can do the work, their passions tend to shift….’Okay, I can do the work. Now what do I want to do? Why?’ In struggling with these questions, workers begin to discover their particular areas of passion for work and to find those purposes that have meaning for them and that sustain them emotionally.”
  • “In any organization, this diversity of passion means that it is important to match individuals with the tasks that have meaning for them.This involves getting to know people’s passions, making judicious task assignments, and asking for volunteers when possible—to allow workers to do their own matching of passions to tasks.”
  • “there is also a considerable amount of commonality of passion within most work groups—not totally, but enough to make it possible for groups to be energized by a shared, meaningful purpose.”
  • “Getting positive feedback about doing something well is often enough to keep people performing an activity— doing it for the sheer pleasure of enjoying the resulting feelings of competence.”
  • “If you are pursuing a meaningful purpose, and you have chosen activities that you believe will accomplish that purpose, then performing those activities well also means that you are serving that purpose.”
  • “Research also shows that we tend to be most engaged in the task when we are performing activities most competently—having all our attention on meeting the challenge helps us perform well but is also a positive experience in itself. It is characteristic of peak performance.”
  • “Having a meaningful purpose can be enough for you to begin a task with enthusiasm, but you need to keep experiencing a sense of progress toward that purpose in order to sustain that enthusiasm.”
  • “Rather than having one big moment of triumph, they take a series of smaller steps forward—whatTom Peters called ‘little wins.'”
  • “As sociologists like Amatai Etzioni have pointed out, people not only strive for financial outcomes, they also try to do the right thing, even though it occasionally costs them financially to do so.”
  • “In a reinforcement model, then, feeling energized by one’s work is simply the experience of getting rewards directly from the work.”
  • “In reinforcement models, on the other hand, emotions are at the core of motivation. Basically, the four intrinsic rewards are those qualities of the work that feel good—that generate positive emotions.”
  • “In reinforcement models, on the other hand, emotions are at the core of motivation. Basically, the four intrinsic rewards are those qualities of the work that feel good—that generate positive emotions.”
  • “The four intrinsic rewards(sense of meaningfulness, choice, competence, and progress) are seen as four distinct feelings.”
  • “All four rewards are accompanied by increased positive emotions about work and by decreased negative emotions.”
  • “The four rewards measure a ‘harmonious’ passion based on enjoying one’s work, not an obsessive ‘need’ to work.”
  • “The four rewards correlate with three key elements of the state of ‘flow’ during work: concentration on the work, sense of control over the work, and enjoyment of the work experience.”
  • Outcomes of Intrinsic Rewards
    • Performance: “Workers who score higher on the WEP are rated as more effective by their managers.”
    • Professional Development: “Across all organizational levels, people who score higher on the intrinsic rewards report higher satisfaction with their professional development.”
    • Job Satisfaction: “A number of studies show that people who score higher on the intrinsic rewards have higher levels of job satisfaction as well.”
    • Commitment to the organization: “This commitment shows up in a number of ways, including recommending the organization to friends as a great place to work and recommending the organization’s products and services to potential customers.16 In effect, then, intrinsically rewarded workers become recruiters and marketers for their organizations.”
    • Retention: “Studies show that higher scores on intrinsic rewards are related to a stronger intention to remain in the organization.”
    • Reduced Stress: “A reduction of stress symptoms generally translates into lower health-care costs and absenteeism, less chance of burnout, and a generally more upbeat workforce.”
  • Diagnostic Framework
    • Step 1: Gauging the Strengths of the Intrinsic Rewards
    • Step 2: Addressing the Building Blocks for a Reward
      • Meaningfulness
        • “A noncynical climate—freedom to care deeply ”
          • “ask yourself what is going well and can go well.”
        • “Clearly identified passions—insight into what one cares deeply about ”
          • “Once you have a clear understanding of your passions, don’t keep them a secret. Share this information with your boss and people in your peer team. That way, they can help funnel “your kind” of projects or assignments to you.”
        • “An exciting vision—a vivid picture of what can be accomplished ”
          • “Your personal vision will set an important example for team members when you begin to help your team develop its vision, and your personal vision can provide a nucleus for the team’s vision. So you will want to develop your personal vision—at least in rough draft form—before you begin to talk about a vision for the team.”
        • “Relevant task purposes—a connection between one’s work and the vision”
          • “What could I [or we] do here that is meaningful?”
          • “You’ll want to nego- tiate to eliminate or simplify tasks with little value. And you’ll want to initiate—or volunteer for—new tasks that better fit your passions and vision.”
          • “From the point of view of managing your energy, then, time management is not about doing everything more efficiently. Rather it is about making sure you spend your creative time on the tasks that are the most meaningful for you. “
        • “Whole tasks—responsibility for an identifiable product or service”
          • “Having a whole task means that there is an identifiable product or area of responsibility that an individual can point to with pride.”
      • Choice
        • “Delegated authority—the right to make decisions ”
          • “Does anything slow you down and keep you from making timely responses to events—for example, waiting for deci- sions that you could make faster or waiting for unnecessary approvals of your proposed actions?”
          • “Does anything limit your flexibility to meet customer needs or otherwise adapt to conditions you face—for example, inflexible rules or one-size-fits-all procedures?”
          • “Does anything prevent you from making the most effective use of your resources—for example, not controlling your own budget or not being able to make hiring decisions?”
        • “Trust—confidence in an individual’s self-management ”
          • “Before your boss can delegate the authority you need, you need to earn your boss’s trust. Basically, you build trust by showing that you can handle that authority—that you are able to self- manage responsibly.”
        • “Security—no fear of punishment for experimentation and honest mistakes ”
          • “’How about the fear of punishment?’ I asked. His answer has stayed with me. He firmly believes there is no significant risk if you genuinely try to ‘do the right thing.'”
          • “You have a duty to your boss, as well as to the organization and your task purpose, to point out dangers.”
          • “It works when you sincerely have the task purpose at heart and when you can also listen to your boss’s information in return.”
        • “A clear purpose—an understanding of what one is trying to accomplish”
          • “What opportunities are there that you could get excited about? What specific purposes could you take on to capitalize on these opportunities?”
        • “Information—access to relevant facts and sources”
          • “So take a moment to ask yourself if there are still some areas where you are guessing because you don’t have access to information you need. If so, what would you need?”
      • Competence
        • “Knowledge—an adequate store of insights from education and experience”
          • “Take the courses you need, read books and articles, and find your own experts.”
        • “Positive feedback—information on what is working”
          • “The importance of the feedback is obvious: it contains infor- mation you need to improve your competence.”
          • “If you suppress feedback or don’t act on it, your team members will eventually stop telling you the truth, and that can lead to disasters.”
        • “Skill recognition—due credit for one’s successes”
          • “Recognizing your competence is important to your intrinsic motivation and also allows you to confidently take on the kinds of challenges you can handle.”
        • “Challenge—demanding tasks that fit one’s abilities”
          • “The trick here is knowing how and when to say no—and when to take on more challenge.”
        • “High, noncomparative standards— demanding standards that don’t force rankings”
      • Progress
        • “A collaborative climate—coworkers who help each other succeed ”
          • ” First, I suggest that you announce your wish to make the rela- tionship more collaborative and, without blame, invite the other person to join you in trying to make it happen.”
          • “The important objective here is to begin this discussion by try- ing to understand both sets of underlying concerns involved in the conflict. Use active listening to understand the other person’s concerns.”
          • “The trick is to keep focused on your underlying concerns and to welcome any course of action that would satisfy them.”
        • “Milestones—reference points to mark stages of accomplishment “
        • “Celebrations—occasions to share enjoyment of milestones ”
          • “So why not give yourself permission to celebrate a little—to keep your energy and passion alive?”
          • “Think of celebrations as investments and renewals and as insurance against burnout.”
          • “You can celebrate your good fortune if you like, which acknowledges that there was some luck involved.You can also reduce jealously by sharing your celebration with team- mates who shared in the task and with friends and family who genuinely care about you.”
        • “Access to customers—interactions with the beneficiaries of one’s work”
          • “Stop for a moment to consider which of your customers are most important to you and your personal vision.Who would most lift your spirits by contacting you to let you know that you are making a real difference for them?”
          • “are there any of those important customer groups that you don’t personally interact with? Or, if you interact with them, are there some with whom you don’t discuss the differences you make for them? If so, how could you meet with these people and get the evidence you need to find out that your work makes a difference?”
        • “Measurement of improvement—a way to see if performance gets better”
  • High Sense of Meaningfulness
    • “You know that your work—or some part of it—is especially meaningful to you when you find yourself excited about it. It’s easy to concentrate on it—to focus your attention and energy. In fact, you are likely to find yourself resenting the time you spend on other, less meaningful activities and borrowing time from those so that you can devote more time to what matters.”
  • Low Sense of Meaningfulness
    • “When your work—or a part of it—is not meaningful to you, you have little emotional investment in it.You feel relatively detached and unrelated to what’s going on with it.The work is empty for you. It’s as though you are waiting for something else more significant to come along and are marking time or making do until it does.”
  • High Sense of Choice
    • “You know you have a sense of choice on a task when you are aware that your views and insights matter—when you need to bring your understanding and judgment to the party. If you stopped to think about it, you would find that you feel very much like an adult in these situations—with the expansive feeling of being a responsible decision maker, driving your own train.”
    • “Your choices are also likely to show up in initiative, innovation, creativity, and experimentation.You also feel a strong sense of ownership of the task and feel personally responsible for the outcomes of your decisions.”
  • Low Sense of Choice
    • “When you feel little sense of choice, in contrast, you feel con- strained and pushed by other people and forces that are driving the train.You have the sense that your own views are irrelevant so that you need to suppress them and comply.”
  • High Sense of Competence
    • “You have a sense of competence when you feel that you are performing your work activities well—when you feel that your performance of those activities is meeting or exceeding your own standards. At such times, you are also likely to feel pride in the good work you are doing.”
  • Low Sense of Competence
    • “You may simply not care about these work activities and not be trying especially hard to do them well, taking little pride in them.You may care about these tasks but not be able to meet your standards for any number of reasons that have little to do with your ability, leaving you feeling embarrassed or dissatisfied by the quality of your work.You may find yourself dealing with challenges that are beyond the skills you have developed so far, causing you to feel overwhelmed or anxious.”
  • High Sense of Progress
    • “You have a sense of progress when you find yourself feeling encouraged about how well your purpose or objective is being achieved.”
  • Low Sense of Progress
    • “When you feel little progress, in contrast, you tend to feel discour- aged.You are likely to feel frustrated and stuck, sensing that the purpose or objective is slipping away. Or you may feel that results are happening too slowly—that you and your team are only plod- ding toward your objective.”
  • “But in reality, good coaches, like other good leaders, do much more to develop and motivate players…. I pointed out that ‘handing off’ is what allows workers to develop choice. Good coaches also have a tradition of inspiring people— building meaningfulness by focusing attention on an important purpose. Finally, good coaches keep players energized and devel- oping by keeping score on measures of progress and by cheering or celebrating that progress when it occurs.”
  • “You can use many different types of evidence.You can provide explanations—like why the current project is especially meaningful in the larger scheme of things.You can collect data—for exam- ple, on increasing customer satisfaction with your unit’s services. You can tell memorable stories—for example, about how people have found creative ways of accomplishing tasks.You can reframe events—such as focusing on how quickly the unit’s performance is improving toward a new standard rather than the fact that it is not quite there yet.And you can use demonstration projects to show what is possible for your team and to generate a sense of momentum.”
  • “Committed members—already highly engaged and intrinsically motivated”
  • “Compliant members—doing what’s required but more dependent on extrinsic rewards and authority “
  • “Complacent members—disengaged and often complaining to other group members”
  • “My advice is to treat pay mostly as a matter of fairness. People want fair pay for their performance and will become unhappy if they feel they are being treated unfairly. So try to resolve any issues of unfairness affecting pay before they become demotivators.”
  • Meaningfulness
    • “When your team has a strong shared sense of purpose, you will find high levels of cooperation in the ser- vice of the purpose, with people helping each other advance their portions of the work. If you find that people are strongly com- mitted to different versions of the work purpose, in contrast, you are likely to encounter different factions pushing their versions of what’s meaningful—and less cooperation.”
    • “the challenge in leading for engagement is to arrive at a shared version of the purpose—one that incorporates the passions of different factions into a larger, more complete view of the purpose.”
  • Choice
    • “The reality is that they are most likely to actually exercise that choice when their purpose is highly meaningful.”
    • “Then team members’ sense of choice will show up in initiative2—taking required actions and trying to get buy-in from others on new projects and procedures. Their choices are also likely to be innovative, as each team mem- ber applies his or her intelligence to finding the best way of doing something, rather than simply complying with old procedures. They are also likely to experiment with new ways of doing their tasks in order to learn what works best. Finally, team members are likely to feel ownership of their tasks and to feel responsible for the outcomes of their choices.”
  • Competence
    • “A high sense of competence will show up as pride in one’s work.”
    • “In contrast, a low sense of competence usually shows up as embarrassment and dissatisfaction with work quality.”
  • Progress
    • “A high sense of progress is likely to show up as pride of accom- plishment, enthusiasm that plans are working out, and the feeling that team members are part of a successful venture.Team members are likely to feel a sense of momentum—that they are “on the move” or ‘really going places.'”
    • “A low sense of progress will often lead the team to question its collective judgment and competence and to undermine team cohesiveness—sometimes with a need to assign blame.”
  • A noncynical climate
    • “Cynical comments are aimed at embarrassing or shaming people who express idealism and pas- sion. Instead of people being energized and rewarded by their pas- sions, cynicism serves to punish and suppress those passions—the opposite of what you want to happen.”
    • “it doesn’t make sense to argue that the cynics are wrong.You can acknowledge those past disappointments and empathize with them. But you also need to point out that cyni- cism and passion are choices that people make.You can announce your own decision to strive to accomplish something of value.And you can invite others to join you, including the cynics.”
  • Clearly identified passions
    • “The team needs to identify its shared passions for a number of rea- sons. Identifying passions moves them (and the associated intrinsic rewards) to the foreground of the team’s thinking about motivation.”
    • “To get at their passions, you might talk with them about their dreams. Dreams are not low-level, practical, or compromised purposes. They are more audacious and more directly related to passions.”
  • An exciting vision
    • “What does a good vision look like? It must speak to the team’s shared passions. In a technical service unit within an organiza- tion, for example, shared passions may involve creating cutting- edge technological innovation and helping clients.A good vision statement for that unit might involve becoming a recognized leader in technical innovation with delighted clients. But such a simple state- ment is not enough.A more complete and concrete picture needs to be painted of what this would look like. For example: the team would hold a number of patents, be benchmarked by similar units in other organizations, and be invited to professional conferences to speak on its innovations.”
  • Relevant task purposes
    • “To energize one’s work, it is important that these day-to-day tasks clearly con- tribute to the vision.”
    • “The goal is to free more time to devote to realizing the vision. Part of your job as leader is to buffer the team from low-return demands. Among other things, this means nego- tiating with superiors and other departments to reduce paperwork requirements—and making sure that you call meetings only for important issues and run them efficiently.”
  • Whole tasks
    • “Finally, it is important that work tasks be designed or allocated so that individual workers are given whole projects where possible, or at least major, identifiable portions of a project.This established principle of job design allows workers to make a larger, more identifiable contribution. It also provides workers a larger poten- tial source of pride.”
  • Delegated authority
    • “Even though workers weren’t fully ready, these managers committed to the development of self- management in their teams and then began to delegate enough authority for them to grow into.”
  • Trust in workers
    • “To experience choice, the team needs to trust that you will keep your word and give them the room to make decisions, and you need to trust them enough to do so.”
    • “Trust also means removing unnecessary rules and controls that prevent team members from using their judgment. To do this, it is useful to shift the questions you ask yourself in evaluat- ing rules and controls.”
    • “if you haven’t made a significant number of rejections, stop requiring team members to get your approval.”
  • Security (no punishment for honest mistakes)
    • “Progress and learning, then, mean expecting and allowing some honest mistakes—and using them as important learning opportunities.”
    • “The remedy, of course, is to actively support team members’ rights to make intelligent mistakes. Honest mistakes, mistakes that made sense given the information at hand, need to be treated as good mistakes and used to produce learning.”
  • Clear purpose
    • “That is, team members need to understand what defines success on a task before they can decide what path to take to get there.”
  • Information
    • ” So as you delegate more and more decisions, you will find yourself thinking less about what you need to know about those matters and thinking more about what your team members need to know. You will shift significantly from the role of decision maker to the support role of ensuring that your team members are informed.”
  • Knowledge
    • “As a leader, you’ll probably need to provide some of this knowledge through relevant training courses, so you should check to see what’s available. But you’ll probably also want to harvest and transfer some of the knowledge that already exists in your team or elsewhere in the organization.”
  • Positive feedback
    • “if one of your purposes is to amplify the sense of competence of your team members, you will want to focus on the positive that is being accomplished through their efforts.This has been called an ‘appreciative’ stance.”
  • Skill recognition
    • “Favoritism will breed cynicism and resentment”
    • “Low scores on our measure of ‘skill recognition’ were related to lower feelings of competence. Look out for that tendency—it damages intrinsic motivation.You want to be generous in recognizing the compe- tence of your team members.”
  • Challenge
    • “People perform best when there is a fit between their ability and the task difficulty, or challenge. If the task is too easy, their atten- tion wanders and they become bored. If it’s too difficult, they get anxious and do less than their best work. An ideally challenging task is just manageable and requires full concentration. Because the task is challenging, it inspires even more satisfaction when it is performed well.”
    • “For workers who have held and mastered the same job for lengthy periods, consider assigning extra duties that require learning new skills, such as special projects or the mentoring of younger team members. Another way to create challenge is by helping to set even higher, more challenging standards as the team gets more skilled at its work.”
  • High, noncomparative standards
    • “the ideal would be to have a team of high performers who feel proud of their work but who also understand that promotion slots and merit raises are limited.”
  • Collaborative climate
    • Collaborative
      • “People listen to their team members’ concerns, take them seri- ously, and try to facilitate them—as well as their own. Energy is directed into problem solving to advance all the tasks.To be sure, team members aren’t always able to find integrative solutions; sometimes they have to settle for compromise. But they tend to make more overall progress than groups that never try.”
    • Avoiding: “unassertive and uncooperative”
      • “you don’t address the conflict, so you wind up neglecting both your own and the other person’s concerns.When avoiding is prominent, tasks commonly get put on hold and little progress occurs.”
    • Competing: “compromising, and accommodating”
      • “you assume that both people can’t win, so you focus on deciding who wins and who loses.”
    • Competing: “assertive and uncooperative”
      • “when you try to satisfy your own concerns at the other person’s expense”
    • Accommodating: “unassertive and cooperative”
      • “when you sacrifice your own concerns to sat- isfy the other person.When accommodating is the norm, people act cooperatively during meetings, but are usually left frustrated, which often leads to hallway complaining after the meeting and a lack of cooperation in actually implementing decisions.”
    • Compromising: “intermediate in assertiveness and cooperativeness”
      • “occurs when you settle for half a loaf—half of what each of you really wants. This mode results in expedient, partial sacrifices of both task concerns, leaving everyone with some progress, but less than they want.”
  • Milestones
  • Celebrations
    • “Celebrations can be private, of course, but sharing them seems to amplify or intensify those emotions.”
    • “As a leader, then, you can create a climate that encourages task celebrations, as well as starting some of those celebrations yourself. Sometimes it will be enough to simply pause during a meeting and note that an event is another sign of progress for the team.”
  • Access to customers
    • “the notion of helping customers is often what makes a work purpose meaningful. For that reason, customer satisfaction and appreciation is often the most direct evidence of ongoing accomplishment.”
    • ” Sales figures, customer surveys, and letters of appreciation are important indicators of customer satisfaction. But for emotional impact, they are a poor substitute for direct, face-to- face encounters.There you can see the smile, feel the handshake, and hear the depth of feeling behind what the customer says.”
  • Measurement of improvement
    • “From a motivational point of view, you need to measure the outcomes that you and your team care about—those aspects of the task pur- pose that flow from your team’s vision.These measures show the value-added of your efforts in achieving that vision.”
    • “In any measurement program, cycle time is one of the most use- ful operational elements to track—and work to reduce.”
  • “You are committing to a meaningful purpose—one that will engage your team members, energize them, tap into their intelligence and creativity, and achieve the kinds of milestones and development you and they will be proud of.”
  • “Without commitment to their organizations’ values, pay-for-performance made employees less likely to do tasks that would help the organiza- tions’ purposes but weren’t measured as part of their duties.When employees were committed to the organizations’ values, however, pay-for-performance didn’t discourage that extra effort. People performed above and beyond the call of duty because they cared, even if it wasn’t extrinsically rewarded.”
  • “Equity is a principle of fairness that basically says that your outcomes (rewards) should be proportional to your inputs (per- formance). It comes into play in comparisons between people or groups and only becomes a motivational force when it is violated.”
  • “Equity is violated when workers see that others in comparable jobs are paid more for the same level of performance or when they find that others are paid the same even though they are performing at lower levels.”
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