Persuasive Technology 2009: Day 3

Can you be persuaded to be happy?
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

  • Attention is the gatekeeper to persuasion
  • But attention is a scarce resource: We can really pay attention to one thing at a time. Millions of bits of information compete to be processed every moment by every brain.
  • The limits of attentional capacity: about 114 bit of information per second. 500,000 bits per day
  • The Quality of our Lives depends n how we invest attention over the life-span
  • The effort required to focus attention is generally experienced as unpleasant. Effortful attention characterizes most activities of everyday life: school, work, commuting…
  • But when concentration is experienced as effortless, high concentration coexists with enjoyment, motivation, interest, happiness
  • What makes attention effortless? I want to do it, I enjoy it now. It might make me happy later (H(n) + H(l) + Choice)/Effort
  • “Concenration is like breathing: you never think of it. The roof could be fall in and, if it mised you, you would unaware of it.”
  • “You’re right in the work, you lose your sense of time, you’re completely enraptured, you’re completely caught up in what you’re doing… there’s no future or past…”
  • “To go into a dark room and look through the microscope and see these glowing objects which may be moving around or maybe stationary, and in different colors– it’s a video game, if you will. It’s just beautiful… I can sit in front of a microscope for three or four hours at a time, just looking at the material and analyzing it… I can be very disconcerting to other people in the degree to which I can concentrate on something and not pay too much attention to what’s going on around me.”
  • What makes information enjoyable now? H(n) is, in part, a function of the balance of challenges provided by the information, and the receiver…
  • Different levels of challenges and skills combinations: Flow (high challenge and high skills), control (high skills, medium challenge), boredom (low challenge), anxiety
  • Some obvious implications for enhancing the enjoyment of attending to information: Information out to engage the receiver’s interest, curiosity, and abilities. It should provide several different choices for kinds of engagement. Different levels of skills; to provide immediate feedback
  • Of course engaging atention by providing enjoyment that leads to effortless concentration is just the first — but perhapst most important — step in the process of persuasion.
  • To get from boredom sate to an improved state: people may eat, drinking, resting. Others reading, or doing work. These activities allows people to focus on tasks that they feel in control. Some listing to music, texting feels they are wasting time. To really find a flow in a constrained environment requires a lot of skills and is possible.

“show-me”: Water Consumption at a Glance to Promote Water Conservation in the Shower
Karin Kappel and Thomas Grechenig

  • Water is ubiquitous.
  • Water facts: One flush of a western toilet uses as much water as the average person in the developing world uses for a whole day’s washing, drinking, cleaning and cooking.
  • Sustainable behavior: Why would people save water? Self interest: What is in it for me?
  • Quesionnaire shows 65.8% think of themselves as being energy-conscious
  • Dissonance between atitude and behavior -> Cognitive dissonance: dissonance results when an individual must choose between attitudes and behaviors that are contradictory.
  • The conservation should be considered as benefit rather than as curtailment. consumption and savings are made visible, thus providing goals and motives where they did not previously exists
  • Create awarenes for a behavior change: “Awareness is the state of knowing about the environment in which you exist; about your surrounding…”
  • Deedback is the key to awareness. Effective feedback has to be direct, immediate, and continuous.
  • Why ambient display as persuasive technology: ambient displays deliver information in real time, thus, serving the effect, that timing is a critical factor for persuasion. the permanent visualization of water consumption leads to increased awareness.
  • 4 roles of technology: as intermediary, amplifier, determinant, promoter
  • Future work: other visualization approaches –> virtual water level on the shower wall, include historic data, extract hot water and visualize separately

Persuasive Qualities of Maps
Louise Norgaard Glud, Anders Albrechtslund and Henrik Harder

  • Zoo case: Use heat maps to illustrate how long guests stay in each area.
  • SMS map: connect location and experience
  • Mapping as experiment: maps as actors, mapping as experiment. Users report what they were looking, doing, and feeling at different part of the zoo. This data is combined w/ their time (SMS timestamps) and location (from GPS). Google Earth was used for data visualization. Some SMS messages was sent w/ wrong GPS coordinate. Some visitors saw the survey experience as part of the zoo experience.
  • Maps as persuasive platforms: The persuasive designer as an actor

Creating Persuasive Technologies: An Eight-Step Design Process
BJ Fogg

  • Stanford Persuasive Video, a class at Stanford. Assignment: create an intervention that achieves a target behavior of your choice. BJ’s advice: Pick a simple behavior that you will be able to measure. “small, measurable successes should be highly valued…”
  • Make it easy to do, call to action, simple, fast
  • Everything big started small: “When one looks at the history of successful consumer Internet services, a striking similarity emerges: Each service started in a smalled focused way.”
  • How to expand on success? repeat, creating a routine. try other simple behaviors, make behavior harder, scale to reach more people (tag or ask people to spread it), create “19 second” genre (pick one of these different paths)
  • Success opens doors
  • don’t over plan interventions
  • How to get on the right path? start small, do it on the side
  • think small
  • 1. Choose a simiple behavior to target 2. Choose a receptive audience 3. Find what is preventing the target behavior (require behavior trigger, simple enough, and moativated) 4. Choose an appropriate technology channel (video, texting, etc. Using the channel that the audience uses.) 5. Find relevant examples of persuasive technology (that works with the target audience) 6. Imitate successful examples 7. Test & iterate quickly (10 tests or more) 8. Expand on success (start the project)
  • Simplicity book: “Getting Real” by 36 signals

A theory-based framework for evaluation exergames as persuasive technology
Marc A Adams, Simon J Marshall, Lndsay Dillon

  • Exergames: examples includes ddr, wii sports, wii fit. Xavix (controllers are shapped like sports equipments)
  • The take-home message is that it’s better than sitting around”
  • Promote physical activity, replace sedentary time, motor skill development, provide safe environment for activity, allow players to engage in sports that have barriers (i.e. elderly can bowl in home)
  • Background: Games are rich microsuasion environments. What’s attractive about games? Why does game play decline over time?
  • The proposed study: quantifying behavior change principles with a set of games
  • operant theory, operant/learning theory: antecedent –> behavior –> consequences. Repeaed interactions w/ contingencies shapes behavior.
  • behavior: conventional video games – mainly thumb and finger movements, exergames – walking, running, sliding, etc.
  • measurable dimensions of behavior: form, frequency, rates, intensity, duration, latency. Games aim to increase or decrease these dimensions using contingencies.
  • Example – xavix powerboxing
  • consequences: reinforcing stimuli, aversive stimuli
  • persuading with consequences: positive and negative reinforcement increase
  • magnitude of reinforcement, immediacy of reinforcement
  • antecedents: instructions, rules, behavioral modeling, visual or auditory stimuli, teach or demonstrate a new behavior

Social Influence of a Persuasive Agent: The Role of Agent Embodiment and Evaluative Feedback
Suzanne Vossen, Jaap Ham and Cees Midden

  • Interactive social feedback as an intervention aimed at energy conservation
  • Social cues: 1. use of speech, 2. embodiment, 3. performance evaluation
  • individuals’ interactions with computers are fundamentally social
  • Effect of the agent embodiment: no main effect of embodiment on energy consumption, emobdiment x gender interaction, no difference for men, women in embodied agent condition…
  • conclusions: the presence of an embodied agent resulted in lower energy consumption compared to voice only, but just for female participants. Indicating a good or bad performance.

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